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The SEC has been issuing a slew of new Compliance and Disclosure Interpretations (“C&DI”) on numerous topics in the past few months. On November 18, 2016, the SEC issued seven new C&DI providing guidance on tender offers in general as well as on abbreviated debt tender and debt exchange offers, known as the Five-Day Tender Offer. The guidance related to the Five-Day Tender Offer clarifies a previously issued January 2015 no-action letter on the subject. As I have not written on the subject of tender offers previously, I include a very high-level summary of tender offers in general and together with specific discussion on the new C&DI.
What Is a Tender Offer?
A tender offer is not statutorily defined, but from a high level is a broad solicitation made by a company or a third party to purchase a substantial portion of the outstanding debt or equity of a company. A tender offer is set for a specific period of time and at a specific price. The purchase offer can be for cash or for equity in either the same or another company (an exchange offer). Where a tender offer is an exchange offer, the offeror must either register the securities being offered for exchange or there must be an available exemption from registration such as under Section 4(a)(2) or Rule 506 of Regulation D.
A tender offer must be made at a fixed price and can include conditions to a closing, such as receiving a certain minimum percentage of accepted tenders. If the person making the tender may own more than 5% of the company’s securities after the tender offer is completed, they must file a Schedule TO with the SEC, including certain delineated disclosures.
Where a tender offer is being made by a company or its management, it is often in association with a going private transaction. Where it is being made by a third party, it is generally for the purpose of acquiring control over the target company and can be either a friendly or hostile takeover attempt.
As mentioned, a tender offer is not statutorily defined but rather can be applied to a broad array of transactions that include the change of ownership of securities. Over the years, a judicially established eight-factor test is used to determine whether the tender offer rules have been implicated and need to be complied with. In particular, in Wellman v. Dickinson, 475 F. Supp. 783 (S.D,N.Y. 1979) the court listed the following eight factors in determining whether a transaction is a tender offer:
- An active and widespread solicitation of public shareholders for the shares of a company is made;
- A solicitation is made for a substantial percentage of the company’s securities;
- The offer to purchase is made at a premium to prevailing market price;
- The terms of the offer are firm rather than negotiable;
- The offer is contingent on the tender of a fixed number of minimum shares and may be subject to a fixed maximum;
- The offer is open for a limited period of time;
- The offeree is subjected to pressure to sell their securities; and
- Public announcements are made regarding the offer.
Not all factors need be present for a transaction to be considered a tender offer, but rather all facts and circumstances must be considered. The SEC has historically focused on whether an investor is being asked to make an investment decision and whether there is pressure to sell. Once it is determined that a transaction involves a tender offer, the tender offer rules and regulations must be complied with.
Tender offers are governed by the Williams Act, which added Sections 13(d), 13(e), 14(d) and 14(e) to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The principle behind the regulatory framework is to ensure proper disclosures to, and equal treatment of, all offerees and to prevent unfair selling pressure. Section 14(d) and Regulation 14D govern tender offers by third parties. Section 14(d) and Regulation 14D set forth the SEC filing requirements and information that must be delivered to those being solicited in association with a tender offer, including the requirement to file a Schedule TO with the SEC.
As with any disclosure document relating to the solicitation or sale of securities, a Schedule TO is comprehensive and includes:
(i) A summary term sheet;
(ii) Information about the issuer;
(iii) The identity and background of the filing persons;
(iv) The terms of the transactions;
(v) Any past contacts, transactions and negotiations involving the filing person and the target company and offerees;
(vi) The purposes of the transactions and plans or proposals;
(vii) The source and amount of funds or other consideration for the tender offer;
(viii) Interests in the subject securities, including direct and indirect ownership;
(ix) Persons/assets retained, employed, compensated or used in the tender process. In its November 18, 2016 C&DI the SEC clarifies that the terms of employment and compensation to financial advisors engaged by an issuer’s board or independent committee to provide financial advice, would need to be disclosed in this section even if such financial advisor is not soliciting or making recommendations to shareholders. In addition, another of the new C&DI clarifies the specificity needed related to compensatory disclosure for financial advisors that are active in soliciting or making recommendations to shareholders. Such disclosure may not always need to include the exact dollar figure of the fees paid or payable to the financial advisor but must include a detailed discussion of the types of fees (such as independence fees, sale or success fees, advisory fees, discretionary fees, bonuses, etc.), when and how such fees will be paid, including any contingencies and any other information that would reasonably be material for a shareholder to judge the merits and objectivity of the financial advisor’s recommendations.
(x) Financial Statements;
(xi) Additional information as appropriate; and
Section 14(e) and Regulation 14E contain the antifraud provisions associated with tender offers and apply to all tender offers, whether by insiders or third parties, for cash or an exchange, and whether full or mini offers. Section 14(e) prohibits an offeror from making any untrue statement of a material fact, or omitting to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. Section 14(e) also prohibits any fraudulent, deceptive or manipulative acts in connection with a tender offer.
Regulation 14E contains certain requirements designed to prevent fraudulent conduct and must be complied with in all tender offers. Regulation 14E requires:
(i) A tender offer must be open for at least 20 days;
(ii) The percentage of the class of securities being sought and the consideration offered cannot change unless the offer remains open for at least an additional 10 business days following notice of such change;
(iii) The offeror must promptly make full payment, or return the tendered securities, upon the termination, withdrawal or closing of the offering. Prompt payment is generally considered to be within 3 days;
(iv) Public notice must be made of any extension of an offer, and such notice must disclose the amount of any securities already tendered. Public notice is usually made via a press release in a widely disseminated publication such as the Wall Street Journal;
(v) The company subject to a tender offer must disclose its position on the tender offer (for, against, or expresses no opinion) to its shareholders. The disclosure must be made within 10 days of notice of the tender offer being provided to the target shareholders;
(vi) All parties must be mindful of insider trading rules and avoid trading when in possession of information related to the launch of a tender offer. Where the company is tendering for its own shares, it must be extra careful and cannot conduct a tender while in possession of insider information;
(vii) Tendering persons must have a net long position in the subject security at the time of tendering and at the end of the proration period in connection with partial tender offers (and not engage in short-tendering and hedged tendering in connection with their tenders); and
(viii) Subject to certain exceptions, no covered person can purchase or arrange to purchase any of the subject securities from the time of announcement of the tender until its completion through closing, termination or expiration. A covered person is broadly defined to include the offeror and its affiliates, including its dealer-manager and advisors.
Section 13(e) governs the information delivery requirements for the repurchase of equity securities by an issuer company and its affiliates. Rule 13e-4 sets forth disclosure, filing and procedural requirements for a company tendering for its own equity securities, including the filing of a Schedule TO with the SEC. An equity security is broadly defined and includes securities convertible into equity securities such as options, warrants and convertible debt but does not include non-convertible debt. Companies often use the SEC no-action letter process for relief as to whether a particular security is an equity security invoking Rule 13e-4 or similar enough to debt as to not require compliance with the rule.
In addition to an initial Schedule TO, which must be filed with the SEC on the commencement date of the offer, under Rule 13e-4, a company must file any of its written communications related to the tender offer, an amendment to the Schedule TO reporting any material changes, and a final amendment to the Schedule TO reporting the results of the tender offer. Moreover, a company must further disseminate information through either mail or widely distributed newspaper publications or both.
Where a company or affiliate is the offeror, Rule 13e-4 requires that such offeror allow a tendering shareholder the right to withdraw their tender at any time while the tender offer remains open. The tender offer must be made to all holders of the subject class of securities and where an offer is oversubscribed, the company must accept tenders up to its disclosed limit on a pro rata basis.
There are several exemptions from the Section 13(e) and Rule 13e-4 requirements. Also, careful consideration should be given when a company embarks on a stock repurchase program under Rule 10b-18 to ensure that such program does not actually result in a tender offer necessitating compliance with the tender offer rules. For a summary of Rule 10b-18, see my blog HERE.
Where the target company remains public, upon acquiring 5% or more of the outstanding securities, Section 13(d) requires that a Schedule 13D must be filed by the acquirer. For more information on Schedule 13D disclosure requirements, see my blog HERE.
Many provisions of the Williams Act, including Sections 13(d), 13(e), 14(d) and Regulation 14D do not have to be complied with for a tender offer that will result in less than 5% ownership (“mini-tender”); however, the antifraud provisions still apply. Mini-tenders are really just a bid for the purchase of stock, usually through a purchase order with a broker, which bid must remain open for a minimum of 20 days. A mini-tender bidder must make payment in full promptly upon a closing. Bidders in a mini-tender do not have to file documents with the SEC or provide the delineated disclosures required by a full tender offer.
Key differences between a mini-tender and full tender offer include: (i) a mini-tender is not required to file a Schedule TO with the SEC, and thus a target company is not given the opportunity to file a responsive Schedule 14d-9; (ii) a mini-tender bidder is not required to treat all offerees equally; (iii) a mini-tender bidder is not required to carve back offerees on a pro rata basis if oversubscribed; (iv) a mini-tender is not required to allow investors to change their minds and withdraw shares prior to a full closing; (v) a mini-tender deadline can be extended indefinitely.
Mini-tenders tend to be at or below market price, whereas full tenders tend to be at a premium to market price, reflecting the increased value in obtaining a control position over the target company. As a result of the lack of investor protections, and that mini-tenders are generally below market price, they are considered predatory and have a high level of negative stigma. The primary criticism against a mini-tender is that target shareholders are likely confused about the distinctions between the mini and full tender and do not realize that the offer is below market, irrevocable, and does not require equal and fair treatment for all shareholders, although all of this information would be required to be disclosed under the still applicable tender offer antifraud provisions.
There does not appear to be a rational reason as to why an investor in a liquid market would choose to sell to a bidder below market price unless there is confusion as to the terms of the offer being presented. The SEC even has a warning page on mini-tenders urging investors to carefully review all terms and conditions. Where a market is not liquid, a mini-tender could be a viable exit strategy, though in practice, mini-tenders are largely launched for the purchase of larger, highly liquid securities.
Abbreviated Debt Tender Offers (Five Business Day Tender Offer)
As discussed above, Section 14(e) of the Exchange Act and Regulation 14E set forth certain requirements for all tender offers designed to prevent fraud and manipulative acts and practices. One of those requirements is that a tender offer be open for a minimum of 20 business days and remain open for at least an additional 10 business days after notice of any change in the consideration offered.
Beginning in 1986, the SEC began issuing a series of no-action letters providing relief from the 20-day rule for certain non-convertible, investment-grade debt tender offers. The SEC recognized that tender offers in a straight debt transaction are often effectuated to refinance debt at a lower interest rate or to extend looming maturity dates. The tender is often at a small premium to the prevailing market or pay-off price and does not include any equity upside or kicker considerations. All parties to a debt tender offer are motivated to move quickly and without the equity considerations; the SEC recognized that the same investor protections are not necessary as in an equity tender offer.
The SEC relief generally required that the debt tender remain open for 7-10 days. In January 2015, in response to a request from numerous top industry law firms, the SEC granted further no-action relief establishing a Five Business Day Tender Offer for non-convertible debt securities, which meets certain delineated terms and conditions.
The conditions to a Five Business Day Tender Offer include:
(i) Immediate Widespread Dissemination – the debt tender must begin with immediate (prior to 12:00 noon on the first day of the offer) widespread dissemination of the offer including by press release and Form 8-K containing certain disclosures and including a hyperlink to an Internet address where the offeree can effectuate the tender. The November 18, 2016 C&DI clarifies that a foreign private issuer may satisfy this requirement by filing a Form 6-K instead of Form 8-K.
(ii) Be made for non-convertible debt securities only;
(iii) Only be initiated by the issuer of the debt securities or a direct or indirect wholly owned subsidiary or parent company;
(iv) Be made solely for cash consideration or an exchange for Qualified Debt Securities. Qualified Debt Securities means non-convertible debt securities that are identical in all material respects (including issuer, guarantor, collateral, priority, and terms and covenants) to the debt securities that are the subject of the tender offer except for the maturity date, interest payment and record dates, redemption provisions and interest rate, and provided further that to be Qualified Debt Securities, all interest payments must be solely in cash (no equity) and the weighted average life to maturity must be longer than the debt that is subject to the offer.
(v) Be open to all record and beneficial holders of the debt securities, provided that in an exchange offer, the exchange offer can be limited to Qualified Institutional Buyers as defined in Rule 144A and/or non-U.S. persons as defined in Regulation S under the Securities Act, and as long as all other record and beneficial holders are offered cash with a value reasonably equal to the value of the exchange securities being offered to those qualified to receive such exchange. The November 18, 2016 C&DI clarifies that although the offer has to be made equally to all holders, like other tender offers, it can have conditions to closing such as that a minimum number of debt holders accept the tender.
(vi) The November 18, 2016 C&DI clarifies that where the offer includes an exchange of Qualified Debt Securities to Qualified Institutional Buyers as defined in Rule 144A of the Securities Act, the cash consideration to the other record holders can be calculated by reference to a benchmark as long as it is the same benchmark used to calculate the value of the Qualified Debt Securities.
(vii) Not be made in connection with the solicitation of consents to amend the outstanding debt securities;
(viii) Not be made if a default exists with respect to the subject tender, or any other, material credit agreement to which the company is a party;
(ix) Not be made if at the time of the offer the company is in bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings;
(x) Not be financed with the proceeds of a Senior Indebtedness;
(xi) Permits tender procedures through a certificate as long as the actual debt security is delivered within 2 business days of closing;
(xii) Provide for certain withdrawal rights until the expiration of the offer or any extension;
(xiii) Provide that consideration will be promptly paid for the tendered debt securities; and
(xiv) Not be made in connection with a change of control, merger or other extraordinary transaction involving the company and not be commenced within ten business days of an announcement of the purchase, sale or transfer of a material subsidiary or amount of assets. The November 18, 2016 C&DI clarifies that a company could announce a plan to conduct a Five Business Day Tender Offer but could not commence the offer until the ten-business-day period had passed.
Securities attorney Laura Anthony and her experienced legal team provides ongoing corporate counsel to small and mid-size private companies, OTC and exchange traded issuers as well as private companies going public on the NASDAQ, NYSE MKT or over-the-counter market, such as the OTCQB and OTCQX. For nearly two decades Legal & Compliance, LLC has served clients providing fast, personalized, cutting-edge legal service. The firm’s reputation and relationships provide invaluable resources to clients including introductions to investment bankers, broker dealers, institutional investors and other strategic alliances. The firm’s focus includes, but is not limited to, compliance with the Securities Act of 1933 offer sale and registration requirements, including private placement transactions under Regulation D and Regulation S and PIPE Transactions as well as registration statements on Forms S-1, S-8 and S-4; compliance with the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, including registration on Form 10, reporting on Forms 10-Q, 10-K and 8-K, and 14C Information and 14A Proxy Statements; Regulation A/A+ offerings; all forms of going public transactions; mergers and acquisitions including both reverse mergers and forward mergers, ; applications to and compliance with the corporate governance requirements of securities exchanges including NASDAQ and NYSE MKT; crowdfunding; corporate; and general contract and business transactions. Moreover, Ms. Anthony and her firm represents both target and acquiring companies in reverse mergers and forward mergers, including the preparation of transaction documents such as merger agreements, share exchange agreements, stock purchase agreements, asset purchase agreements and reorganization agreements. Ms. Anthony’s legal team prepares the necessary documentation and assists in completing the requirements of federal and state securities laws and SROs such as FINRA and DTC for 15c2-11 applications, corporate name changes, reverse and forward splits and changes of domicile. Ms. Anthony is also the author of SecuritiesLawBlog.com, the OTC Market’s top source for industry news, and the producer and host of LawCast.com, the securities law network. In addition to many other major metropolitan areas, the firm currently represents clients in New York, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Boca Raton, West Palm Beach, Atlanta, Phoenix, Scottsdale, Charlotte, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Washington, D.C., Denver, Tampa, Detroit and Dallas.
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