The OTC Markets Group Best Practices on Stock Promotion Guidelines

Posted by on January 23, 2018

As in its separate stock promotion policy, the OTC Markets Group best practices on stock promotion guidelines reiterate the core principle that the timely disclosure of material information is key, which includes the duty to dispel unfounded rumors, misinformation or false statements.

OTC Markets Group suggests that companies perform due diligence on investor relations firms and their principals prior to engaging services.  This is advice I am constantly giving to my clients.  Basic due diligence includes reviewing other represented clients and doing basic searches for regulatory issues or negative news.   Companies should also be very clear on what services an investor relations firm will perform and what compensation will be paid for those services.

Very vague service descriptions often indicate an improper promotional campaign.  OTC Markets Group also warns of red flags, including a request that payment be split among various individuals or groups.

A company that hires or sponsors investor relations is responsible for the content of communications made by that company and must ensure that all information is materially current and accurate.  In addition, a company should retain editorial control and review all information before it is disseminated.  Investor relations materials should not use language that makes assumptions, is speculative or misleading, or brazenly hypes the stock. Communications should not cover new material information that has not been previously disclosed, and should not extend beyond providing factual information to investors and shareholders.

The disclosures required by Section 17(b) must always be properly made, and OTC Markets Group specifically requires that any relationship between the investor relations individuals and entities and the company be fully disclosed.

Since third parties often engage in stock promotional activities without the knowledge or consent of a company, it is important for a company to know its investors, including the people behind any entities or investor groups.  Investors that desire anonymity or utilize offshore entities raise a red flag.  Furthermore, companies should be wary of shareholders that own significant control or investor groups that will qualify to remove restrictive legends on stock.  Investor groups often change the name of their investment vehicle entity and, as such, due diligence should include prior entities.

OTC Markets Group warns against toxic or death spiral financing.  Toxic or death spiral financing generally involves an investment in the form of a convertible promissory note or preferred stock that converts into common stock at a discount to market with no floor on the conversion price.  As I have written about many times, there are quality investors and others that are not quality in the microcap space.   The use of convertible instruments as a method to invest in public companies is perfectly legal and acceptable.  However, like any other aspect of the securities marketplace, it can be abused.  Further examples of abusive or improper activity could include: (i) backdating of notes or failure to provide the funding associated with the note; (ii) improper undisclosed affiliations between investors and the company or its officers and directors; (iii) manipulative trading practices; (iv) improper stock promotion; or (v) trading on insider information.

Again, in choosing a transaction it is incumbent upon the company to conduct due diligence on the investor, including their reputation in the industry and trading history associated with other investments and conversions.

OTC Markets Group also warns of anonymous third-party promotions, noting that these promotions are a significant source of misleading and manipulative information.

Any company-sponsored stock promotion must be disclosed, whether the company is involved directly or indirectly.  The identity of a company’s investor relations firm must be disclosed on the company’s profile page on

OTC Markets Group recommends that a company make a public announcement with the following information in the event it learns it is the subject of misleading or manipulative stock promotion:

  • A summary of the company’s understanding of the stock promotion, including how and when the company became aware of the campaign and a description of the promotion’s effect on the company’s trading activity;
  • Whether the content of the promotion is accurate or contains untrue or misleading information;
  • Conduct an inquiry of company management, officers and directors, to ascertain whether they are involved in the stock promotion and/or of have purchased or sold securities before, during or after the promotion;
  • Provide an up-to-date list of service providers who perform investor relations or similar services;
  • Disclose the issuance of convertible securities with variable rate or discount to market conversion rates. This disclosure should include details on the convertible instruments, including date, number of shares issued or issuable, price, conversion terms, and parties involved.

OTC Markets also suggests that all companies have insider trading policies, a policy which I support and suggest to my clients.