Blockchain Technology and the Capital Markets Explained by Laura Anthony, Esq.
Posted by Attorney Laura Anthony on September 20, 2017
Blockchain Technology and the Capital Markets Explained by Laura Anthony, Esq.- As discussed in this Lawcast series, DLT applications have already impacted the securities industry. Many financial institutions have already established in-house or third-party research teams to build and test DLT networks and applications.
Related to Governance – A basis of DLT technology is that it is an open network with no centralized governing power or operator. FINRA notes that although there are benefits to this system, there are also issues, such as how to handle a large volume of transactions effectively. As a result, closed networks have started where participants are pre-vetted trusted parties. In the capital markets, questions will need to be answered related to the operation of the network and who has responsibility for what aspects—for example, who would decide governance and internal controls and procedures, who would enforce these governance rules, who would be responsible for day-to-day operations including addressing system failures or technical issues, how errors would be rectified and conflicts of interests addressed.
Related to Operational Structure – Any DLT Network will need to consider its operational structure including a framework for: (i) network participant access and related onboarding and offboarding procedures; (ii) transaction validation; (iii) asset representation (such as shares of stock); and (iv) data and transparency requirements.
A network will need to establish criteria and procedures for establishing and maintaining participating members and determining their level of access. Controls and procedures will need to address: (i) criteria for participants to gain access to the network; (ii) a vetting and onboarding process including identity verification and user agreements; (iii) an offboarding process for both involuntary offboarding as a result of noncompliance and voluntary offboarding; (iv) monitoring and enforcement procedures for compliance with rules of conduct; (v) establishing various levels of access; and (vi) access for regulators.
Networks will need to determine a method for transaction validation. In the short history of blockchain, there have already been different methodologies. Validation could be consensus-based, single-node verifier or multiple-node verifier. Each method has pros and cons, and the specific algorithms and processes would need to be ferreted out.
On the topic of asset representation, networks will need to determine if the actual asset will be directly issued digitally (which only works for certain assets such as intangibles, stock or agreements representing ownership interests) or issued traditionally and be tokenized on the network. If tokenized, further thought must be given to security, handling loss or theft of the underlying asset, fractionalization issues, handling changes such as reverse or forward stock splits or conversions, and new issuances as some examples.
Likewise, thought must be given to the handling of cash on the network, including the settlement of transactions. In that regard, could tokens become a form of cash and if so, how would they ultimately be converted into established government currencies? Ownership in almost any asset could also be tokenized (such as diamonds, gold, precious metals, art, etc.), creating issues of custodianship and security for the underlying asset. Intangible assets would be relatively easy to tokenize. Fungible assets would be easier than non-fungible assets, with unique assets being the most difficult.
A network will need controls and processes related to data transparency including public or shared information versus private information.